Zoho Invoice

100% free online invoicing tool for freelancers and SMBs.

Overall rating

4.7 /5
(695)
Value for Money
4.7/5
Features
4.6/5
Ease of Use
4.7/5
Customer Support
4.6/5

96%
recommended this app
Sort by

695 Reviews for UK Users

Skyler
Skyler
Overall rating
  • Industry: Writing & Editing
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Weekly for 6-12 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 8.0 /10

Zoho Invoice is the perfect invoicing solution for freelancers

Reviewed on 17/05/2023

My experience with Zoho Invoice has been great. I used to use Wave to invoice clients for years....

My experience with Zoho Invoice has been great. I used to use Wave to invoice clients for years. But then they changed to only be available for US and Canadian customers. After that I then tried a number of other invoicing software and settled on Zoho Invoice. For freelancers and small businesses it is the perfect option, and completely free! It makes it quick and easy to add new customers, invoice them, and also keep track of outstanding payments.

Pros

I love that Zoho Invoice software is free to use, and also integrates Stripe to allow me to take credit and debit card payments. As a freelancer, I work with a small number of clients, and only send a few invoices per month, so paying for other freelancing software doesn't seem like good value. I like that the invoice can be customized to suit my branding, as well as adding custom fields such as an ABN. It is also minimalist and looks professional. Another great thing is that there are also no restrictions on the number of clients I can add, which is perfect because I do a lot of one off projects.

Cons

I don't like the way that the card payments via Stripe appear on the invoice. It is just a small icon of a card under the 'Payment Options' section, but it doesn't seem as clear or trustworthy as other invoicing software. I manually added text about clicking the icon to make a payment by debit or credit card via Stripe. However, I noticed that the number of clients who do so is significantly less than when I used to accept card payments via Wave. It can also be confusing to find certain menu items when configuring invoices - especially related to custom fields.

Alternatives Considered

FreshBooks

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Invoice

I only send a few invoices per month, and the Freshbooks Lite plan only has up to 5 billable clients. Because I do a lot of one off projects, I found myself having to delete previous clients to still be able to charge new ones. The next plan was double the price, and went from 5 to 50 billable clients - a significant difference.

Switched From

FreshBooks

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Invoice

Zoho Invoice has all of the features that I need and is totally free. It also doesn't have any limitations on the number of clients I can invoice.
Matthew
Matthew
Overall rating
  • Industry: Marketing & Advertising
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Monthly for 2+ years
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 9.0 /10

Great invoicing tool for small businesses

Reviewed on 25/11/2019

Overall good customer service and good product. We tried different ways to implement the recurring...

Overall good customer service and good product. We tried different ways to implement the recurring feature that most of our clients would use. We wanted to auto deduct recurring invoices and it didn't have that feature, otherwise, we probably would have stayed with it. We did use Zoho subscriptions for that.

Pros

It was quick to get up and running. The software is fairly easy to navigate and provides professional looking invoices that are downloadable by my customers. My favorite feature is the reminder feature, once you send out an invoice the software can send out automated reminders for the client to pay in case they don't see it in their email the first time or get busy and forget (cause an email will be forgotten eventually, as good intentioned as we all are). Definitely good for people starting out and small businesses that don't have a lot of clients. The price point is low for starting out, usually a lot less than other software I've seen and used. And if you use Zoho CRM, in can integrate with that.

Cons

For me personally, I was using the software for invoicing website development customers, and once you get done, apart from web hosting, you are done. And over the past few years, I hit my max level and I don't feel like its much of a benefit to have past customers count towards my limit. Some of which are small jobs.

I think it would be better if you have the same customers you invoice regularly.

Alternatives Considered

PayPal

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Invoice

We were switching CRM systems and cutting back on things we were not using.

Switched From

Keap

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Invoice

Better options than paypal with less setup.

Response from Zoho

Hi Matthew,

Thanks for the review!

We are happy to know the automatic reminders and the integration between Zoho Invoice and Zoho CRM were of help to you.

Regarding recurring transactions, it's good to hear that Zoho Subscriptions caters to your needs but since Zoho Invoice itself has recurring invoices and the ability to auto-charge your customers, we would like to know a little more on it.

You can reach out to [email protected] so that we can understand your requirements better.

Regards,
Harikrishna

Marion
Overall rating
  • Industry: Printing
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Daily for 6-12 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Likelihood to recommend 6.0 /10

Wish it had more features

Reviewed on 02/06/2022

Pros

It was fantastic for the price. You have a full suite of features for a fraction of what something like Freshbooks or Quickbooks cost. While it had significant limitations, the features are far and above what you would expect for the monthly fee

Cons

My review my be a little outdated as I have switched over to Quickbooks paired with an industry specific invoicing system. The main issue I had was that it was missing a strong estimation software that they had implemented in their CRM module. That baffled me as the CRM had a more customizable and robust system than their actual invoicing system did. What's more, it didn't translate over as cleanly as I would have wanted. This might have been fixed by now but the disparity between their different modules can be problematic.

Alternatives Considered

shopVOX and QuickBooks Online
Mrs Sowemimo
Overall rating
  • Industry: Food & Beverages
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Daily for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Review by Me

Reviewed on 10/02/2024

It is a very important invoicing app. I would recommend it.

It is a very important invoicing app. I would recommend it.

Pros

It is a good and easy to use app. Very affordable.

Cons

The reviews is taking much of my time. Yes

Rick
Rick
Overall rating
  • Industry: Construction
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Monthly for 1+ year
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Zoho Invoice has been our go to Invoicing app for years

Reviewed on 06/06/2023

Overall our experience with Zoho Invoice has been great. We’ve been able to teach our older less...

Overall our experience with Zoho Invoice has been great. We’ve been able to teach our older less tech savvy guys how to use it and now we’re billing much faster and getting paid much faster. I love being able to take credit cards on the job site with Zoho.

Pros

I love how easy Zoho Invoice is for me and my team to use. Some of our guys are not super tech savvy and they’ve been able to learn it in no time.

Cons

Now that we’ve figured everything out we’re really happy with it. We’ve had no problems and it’s helped our business grow.

Verified Reviewer
Overall rating
  • Industry: Online Media
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Weekly for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Another amazing solution from Zoho

Reviewed on 01/01/2024

Pros

You get all the invoicing features you need as a freelancer, for free. You can do even more with paid features, but I found what I need with the basic features, and I'm thankful this software exists.

Cons

The branding customisation is limited to the logo, and the invoices are watermarked. If that doesn't keep you from using this software, you'll be happy with the rest of the features.

Kel
Overall rating
  • Industry: Photography
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Weekly for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

ZOHO GO GO

Reviewed on 20/12/2023

Pros

Free and great. I am in Australia so a few modifications but if i got it to work with a brain like mine .... then anyone can.

Cons

Nothing, Zilch, Nil, Zero, Nought, Zero, Zip

PIJUSH
Overall rating
  • Industry: Electrical/Electronic Manufacturing
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Weekly for Free Trial
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

user friendly

Reviewed on 14/02/2024

It was a good experience overall It was free so for my small business it was perfect.

It was a good experience overall It was free so for my small business it was perfect.

Pros

simple for my small type of self-employed person.

Cons

item short by word characters only like (ORIVA SWITCH 16amp) only I have to type switch then all type of switch in the list shown in the list I don't have to type full name like (ORIVA SWITCH 16amp)

Raj
Overall rating
  • Industry: Facilities Services
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Weekly for Free Trial
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

to good for me

Reviewed on 29/02/2024

to good for me because i have no education but i am using this app
happy hours thank u zoho...

to good for me because i have no education but i am using this app
happy hours thank u zoho invoice team & [sensitive content hidden]

Pros

Easy for me Easy invoice appear on display any one use uneducated person u can use this product

Cons

Easy invoice appear on display any one use uneducated person can use this product

Omar
Overall rating
  • Industry: Information Technology & Services
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Monthly for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Likelihood to recommend 8.0 /10

Simple and greatly customizable

Reviewed on 01/04/2024

Pros

The customizability is a great aspect, allowing you to create the invoices exactly as you intend. The con is that some things are not exactly intuitive, but with some dedication you can figure things out.

Cons

Customization, although extremely powerful, sometimes feel cumbersome.

Krishna
Krishna
Overall rating
  • Industry: Hospital & Health Care
  • Company size: 5,001–10,000 Employees
  • Used Daily for 1+ year
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 9.0 /10

Zoho Invoice has been a wonderful and superb experience for me

Reviewed on 18/05/2022

So that I can capture clients at the exact time they are ready to on-board, Zoho's phone app and...

So that I can capture clients at the exact time they are ready to on-board, Zoho's phone app and website interface flawlessly, allowing me to produce booking deposit invoices while on the go. Once I've set up all of my templates, sending an invoice to a new client through email or SMS is as simple as a few clicks.

Pros

Invoicing and bookkeeping in a small business are a snap with Zoho. Because I can simply compile and print out all of my billing and revenue information from the year, I no longer have to worry about tax season. If you're in the market for a straightforward and easy-to-use invoicing system, I highly suggest Zoho. We had a few difficulties with help early on, but they've been fixed and the assistance has been excellent since.

Cons

When premium plans were removed, a free forever plan was introduced, however Zoho branding was applied to the papers, which was a downfall. Zoho Invoice could charge a modest price to remove branding or a note that users may produce free invoices like this.

Lynda
Lynda
Overall rating
  • Industry: Information Services
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Daily for 2+ years
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Great product for small business

Reviewed on 25/05/2023

excellent simple system for most small business

excellent simple system for most small business

Pros

Simple invoice and expense tracking easily tracked on dashboard with drilldown to details. Can add business logo to invoice. Can enter time and have projects populate an invoice; can add items for quick entry; can add invoice discounts at $ or %; can attach timesheets; option to send to multiple emails, option to attach pdf of invoice to email and modify email contents. Also great support.

Cons

when a new invoice line is entered, the empty default line remains and has to be deleted

Alternatives Considered

QuickBooks Online and Wave

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Invoice

integration with expenses and Zoho expense entry has faster and better receipt attachment auto scan from emails and app. i.e. expenses in email can be inline or attached and it will auto-scan either

Switched From

Wave

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Invoice

qbo not requred for simple business, zoho better than wave as described in 'why switched'
Mohit
Overall rating
  • Industry: Commercial Real Estate
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Daily for 1+ year
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Industry leading "free" invoicing software

Reviewed on 06/05/2023

Superb!

Superb!

Pros

Zoho invoice has all premium and more than required feature for a small to medium enterprise and that too at no cost at all.

Cons

Honestly, yet to find to find something which I didn't like or is not useful for my organisation.

Alternatives Considered

TallyPrime

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Invoice

Ease of creating, amending, processing and sharing invoices. This software also lets you keep track of your monthly turnover, account receivables and many more important metrics quite effortlessly.

Switched From

TallyPrime

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Invoice

Simple UI.
Janine
Overall rating
  • Industry: Professional Training & Coaching
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Daily for 1+ year
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Zoho Invoicing is excellent

Reviewed on 12/05/2023

Brilliant

Brilliant

Pros

Very easy to set up, create customers, items, invoices, allocate payments, pull reports. Exceptionally easy to navigate on laptop or mobile

Cons

After changing a customers information, I struggle to amend previous invoices to reflect the new info

Alternatives Considered

Sage Accounting

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Invoice

Needed an online app to invoice customers on the 'run'

Switched From

Microsoft Excel

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Invoice

Cost, ease of use
Andres
Overall rating
  • Industry: Wine & Spirits
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Daily for 6-12 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Zoho invoice is a very useful and not expensive tool to manage billing, invoicing and...

Reviewed on 18/03/2023

reducing invoicing creation time, invoicing payment management and customer management.

reducing invoicing creation time, invoicing payment management and customer management.

Pros

InvoicingFinancial reportingAccountingexpenses managementcustomers management

Cons

integration with microsoft application will be ideal

Alternatives Considered

QuickBooks Desktop Enterprise and Wave

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Invoice

Zoho has more functionalities and easier to use

Switched From

Wave

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Invoice

Zoho has more functionalities and easier to use
Richard
Overall rating
  • Industry: Information Technology & Services
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Weekly for 2+ years
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Zoho is good for small consulting businesses

Reviewed on 26/04/2023

Very good - have used it for a long time and improvements are coming out all the time.

Very good - have used it for a long time and improvements are coming out all the time.

Pros

Easy to setup and Intuitive to use. The Zoho team are making good improvements to the system regularly

Cons

Limited in that it does provide a p&L statement report

Alternatives Considered

Xero

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Invoice

Xero too expensive and getting less flexible all the time.

Switched From

Xero

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Invoice

see above
Verified Reviewer
Overall rating
  • Industry: Management Consulting
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Weekly for 1+ year
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Easy to use invoicing software for small businesses

Reviewed on 20/02/2023

It made invoicing quicker, more professional and far more secure than creating invoices in Word.

It made invoicing quicker, more professional and far more secure than creating invoices in Word.

Pros

Zoho Invoice is intuitive, easy to set up and makes invoicing efficient. User interface is logical and clean.

Cons

No negative aspects to Zoho Invoice. I only stopped using it as I upgraded to Zoho Books for the full accounting functionality.

Alternatives Considered

QuickBooks Online and Xero

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Invoice

Wanted better information security, more professional layout and reporting functions (Word). I found Xero to be a little clunky and less intuitive for a micro business.

Switched From

Xero and Microsoft Word

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Invoice

More intuitive and good value
Nomsa
Overall rating
  • Industry: Consumer Services
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Daily for Free Trial
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Saved my small business time and money.

Reviewed on 01/12/2023

Great ,cut down cost for me and helped me run my small business smoothly.

Great ,cut down cost for me and helped me run my small business smoothly.

Pros

Invoicing and the different templates you can choose from it is also very easy to use,.

Cons

I would really appreciate the summary of sales receipts just like that of invoices.

Alternatives Considered

eHopper

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Invoice

I can use my country settings. It is fairly easy to edit invoices and I can keep them in my drafts. I could add my company logo which makes my invoices look professional and reliable.

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Invoice

Value for money, ease of use. Easy setup.
Georgiana
Overall rating
  • Industry: Business Supplies & Equipment
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Daily for 6-12 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Why Zoho is the best way to go?

Reviewed on 15/04/2023

My overall experience using Zoho is great.

My overall experience using Zoho is great.

Pros

I love that I can create an invoice for also anything. I can create one for different projects and track my sales. With online invoicing, my customers can get their estimates and access them on their end. They are also able to see what's happening. I also have the Zoho app whereby I can use anywhere at any time. I love that the payment process can be done online in the conform of my one or anywhere.

Cons

I like all the features that come with Zoho.

Matthew
Matthew
Overall rating
  • Industry: Marketing & Advertising
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Monthly for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Zoho Is A Great Option, At Least From A One Man Band Perspective

Reviewed on 29/04/2023

Really good; I needed something to automate time tracking to billing and invoicing in a robust...

Really good; I needed something to automate time tracking to billing and invoicing in a robust manner. Zoho will be the tech stack utilized to process out other needs as well, for myself and my marketing clients.

Pros

It was easy to set up, and when I ran into particular setup difficulties between Zoho Projects (time tracking) and Zoho Invoice, the support that was given was exceptional.The support knew exactly what was needed between both portals to get me back on track.

Cons

A checklist being more prominent to guide the full top down setup would be appreciated, but this isn't a real issue with how good support was. The knowledge articles are prominent thought.

Alternatives Considered

FreshBooks, QuickBooks Online, Wave and Xero

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Invoice

Loved both Tracking Time and Todoist, but I needed something more specific to the task, and porting over from one technology to another works, but I gravitate towards heavily integrated products.

Switched From

Todoist and TrackingTime

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Invoice

Project Management directly into and automatically calculated into straight line integration under one roof. Hard to pull off, but Zoho has incrementally become good and better over time to do so.
Jesse
Overall rating
  • Industry: Information Technology & Services
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Daily for 1+ year
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Very Satisfield With Zoho Invoice

Reviewed on 03/04/2023

I use it to enter time to be billed and expenses (both reimbursable by clients and things for my...

I use it to enter time to be billed and expenses (both reimbursable by clients and things for my company). Having the mobile app allows me to do both things when not at my computer. Then when it's time to create an invoice it's quick and easy.

Pros

The mobile app simplifies entering my time and expenses while I'm away from my computer. Also, I was using a self-built web based program I wrote 25 years ago. Zoho Invoice had all the things I needed to be able to switch easily. It also has a lot of functionality I don't use. And it's nice I'm not forced to use parts I don't need.

Cons

Some of the reports in the online version are not available in the mobile app. Also, I haven't figured out a way for it to tell me which clients I need to invoice in the current billing cycle. I can look at my time entries and my expense entries and figure it out. But it would be nice to have a report to run to show unbilled totals by client/customer for a given time period. If that exists I haven't found it.

Andy
Overall rating
  • Industry: Graphic Design
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Daily for 2+ years
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Mr

Reviewed on 29/05/2017

Zoho Invoice provides a full-featured accounting tool for self-employed service professionals who...

Zoho Invoice provides a full-featured accounting tool for self-employed service professionals who don't need to manage bank accounts or balance sheet assets. If you sell your time or sell (or resell) products you create and don't need an inventory system, Zoho Invoice is nearly perfect.

Pros

Practically everything is so well-thought out. Zoho Invoice is everything a self-employed person or entrepreneur needs to manage contacts, quotes, invoices, receivables and expenses. It even has robust support for time billing (projects, tasks, etc.), sales tax, recurring invoices, and even multiple currencies (I just need USD, but the capability is there). Zoho Invoice is the almost perfect accounting tool I need to track income and expenses. When my data is entered and up to date, getting my data to my accountant for income tax prep is as simple as exporting two spreadsheets.

Cons

The expense feature set includes the ability to track mileage. This feature is represented well on the iOS app, but in order to enter a mileage record with an odometer reading, the system requires both a beginning value and an ending value at the same time. This really doesn't work. I would have to note my beginning mileage then enter it along with the ending mileage at the end of the business trip. As such, I use a standalone mileage app called MileBug.

Ebbenezer Mziyanda
Ebbenezer Mziyanda
Overall rating
  • Industry: Design
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Daily for 2+ years
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Easy and helpful invoicing system for any business big and small

Reviewed on 11/05/2023

Great experence

Great experence

Pros

Since I migrated to Zoho, I am able to generate quotes and invoices. Some of the service I supply are per month while others are per year. With Zoho I can setup an invoice to generate once a year for annual customers on an ongoing setup, therefore no need for me to remember to send the annual invoices, but Zoho does that for me.

Cons

The inability to generate payslips. As a business looking to scale up, it would be a great thing to be able to generate payslips for employees and myself within the same system, that way it will be easy to manage all admin things of the business on one platform

David
Overall rating
  • Industry: Construction
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Daily for 2+ years
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

The Best Invoicing Software, Anywhere!!!!

Reviewed on 14/04/2023

It saves me a ton of money and time. Most invoicing apps are complicated and confusing. With Zoho...

It saves me a ton of money and time. Most invoicing apps are complicated and confusing. With Zoho they just showed the world how easy invoicing can be. All you need is 5 minutes and you are an invoicing and accounting expert.

Pros

Its easy. Its not confusing. It keeps everything organized. It cuts down on paperwork. It keeps you out of the office and in the field.

Cons

What is there not to like about it. It almost does the work for you.

Verified Reviewer
Overall rating
  • Industry: Higher Education
  • Company size: 501–1,000 Employees
  • Used Daily for 2+ years
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Freelancers will fall in love!

Reviewed on 23/01/2019

Wonderful! Can't say enough about Zoho Invoicing component!

Wonderful! Can't say enough about Zoho Invoicing component!

Pros

After having tried to find solutions that are cloud-based, available on multiple devices and is easy to use, this is absolutely the best economic solution!

I am a part-time design freelancer with many clients to balance jobs/AP/AR, needless to say, I needed an easy to use solution that I can quickly find, send, follow-up or expense items. This is by far the best option for that type of invoicing!

-Customizable
-Detailed reports & dashboards
-Estimates
-Terms & conditions
-Easy entries by client
-Sortable
-Can use on desktop & mobile
-Timesheets (although I don't utilize this function)

Cons

Honestly, I have yet to find a flaw for my needs. This is such a wonderful solution for small to midsize businesses and perhaps nonprofits. Not sure how well it would fare for larger organizations.